Sunday, March 29, 2015

UN Human Rights Council Adopts Resolution on Prevention of Genocide

GENEVA, Switzerland (A.W.)—On March 27, the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) adopted a resolution on the prevention of genocide (A/HRC/28/L.25). Introduced by the Permanent Mission of Armenia to the United Nations, the resolution recommends that the General Assembly designate Dec. 9 as the International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of Genocide, “in order to raise awareness of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and its role in combatting and preventing the crime of genocide.”
The resolution stresses that the fight against impunity is key to the prevention of genocide. It also underscores the importance of genocide education and the need to identify the root causes of genocide, and suggests that a list of contact points be established to strengthen efforts toward prevention. It also expresses the need for “enhanced international cooperation.”
The resolution further “condemns the intentional public denial or glorification of crimes of genocide and crimes against humanity as defined by international law, and notes with concern that public denials create a risk of further violations and undermine efforts to prevent genocide.”
On Feb. 13, the government of Armenia approved a motion declaring Dec. 9 as the “Day of Remembrance of Victims of All Genocides.” According to the reasoning submitted by the sponsoring members of Parliament, the adoption of the law will set Dec. 9 as the day of condemnation and remembrance of all genocides, “based on the fact that the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide on Dec. 9, 1948.”
The full text of the UNHRC resolution can be read here.

Friday, March 27, 2015

Balakian Discusses Genocide, Cultural Destruction at Holocaust Museum Houston

Anticipation was peak as a record crowd gathered at the Holocaust Museum Houston on Sat., March 14 for an emersion into a fascinating lecture on Raphael Lemkin, the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, and cultural destruction.
Balakian speaks at Holocaust Museum Houston
Balakian speaks at Holocaust Museum Houston
Tamara Savage, the director of the Holocaust Museum Houston, introduced Balakian, the Donald M. and Constance H. Rebar Professor of the Humanities at Colgate University, who has made the genocide a key part of his life’s work as an award-winning writer, poet, and genocide expert.
Balakian started by praising the history of Jewish rescue, witness, and intellectual work on the Armenian Genocide. From Ambassador Henry Morgenthau to Raphael Lemkin, to Franz Werfel and into the modern era of Jewish scholars working on and standing up for the Armenian Genocide discourse, Balakian noted that “the role Jews have played in bearing witness to and later defining the Turkish genocide of the Armenians has been profound.”
It was Lemkin who became the father of the U.N. Genocide Convention of 1948. It was Lemkin who coined the phrase “Armenian Genocide” in the 1940’s. As a graduate student he challenged his professor after learning about the Turkish massacres of the Armenians, asking, “How can it be that if one man kills another he is charged with murder, but if a whole nation-state kills more than a million people they are allowed to do it without any consequences?” This moment ended up changing his career path.
Among the many layers of Lemkin’s understanding of genocide as a crime is the concept that the destruction of culture is a vitally important aspect of the genocidal process. At the core of every group identity are the cultural institutions that codify group identity.
The official number of dead in the Holocaust, according to the U.S. Holocaust Museum, is 5.1 million. In the Armenian case, Lemkin put the death toll at 1.2 million. The epicenter of killing was in 1915 and 1916. About two-thirds of the Armenian population perished.
Balakian discussed some defintions of culture as essential to the identity of any ethnic or group. He also analyzed some of the tactics of Turkish assault on Armenian culture in 1915. He discussed the destruction of about 4,500 churches and schools; the killing of the culture producers—the writers, teachers, editors, clergy, and journalists—on April 24 and after thoughout Turkey; and the forced conversion of Armenians to Islam as a way of eradicating ethnic identity.
Balakian discussed the the city of Ani in eastern Turkey as an example of the politicization of historical monuments and their preservation in a post-genocidal context. Ani, which Balakian suggested might be seen as the equivalent of Florence for Italy, was the medieval capital of the Armenian Bagratid Kingdom in the 10th and 11th centuries, and is today on the Turkish-Armenian border. It was celebrated for the artistry of its churches and other structures. The city was abandoned in the 17th century and has since been subjected to earthquakes and destruction that have left it in ruins.
Balakian referred to Grigoris Balakian’s The Ruins of Ani to suggest that scholars might now see the erosion and falsification of Ani by the Turkish government through a post-colonial lens. He emphasized the connection Armenians have to eastern Turkey, but also the experiences of exile and loss because of what he called the “lock out syndrome”—the result of Ankara’s policy of disallowing even proper identification on the signage of historic Armenian churches.
In response to a question from the audience about the U.S. government’s refusal to go on official record about the Armenian Genocide, Balakian noted that the State Department remains afraid of standing up to Turkish coercion and pressure, and this seems to be a failure of ethical courage. Twenty-two countries have passed a resolution recognizing the Armenian Genocide, including Poland, Sweden, France, Greece, and Switzerland.
Vreij Kolandjian thanked Balakian for his lecture and the Holocaust Museum Houston for emphasizing the importance of the Armenian Genocide by hosting two lectures and one exhibition on the topic three months in a row. Balakian’s talk stunned the audience to rapturous applause.

2 Comments on Balakian Discusses Genocide, Cultural Destruction at Holocaust Museum Houston

  1. avatar richard c bozian M.D. F.A.C.P. // March 26, 2015 at 7:01 pm // Reply
    Peter Balakian has done a noble service to the Armenian cause in his address at Houston, as is always the case with him. His efforts are notable in several respects. First, in emphasizing the systematic destruction of our culture: the churches, the schools, the museums, in addition to over one million innocents in the 19th and 20th centuries. This puts the lie to the Turkish claim that they were merely responding to traitorous act of Armenian soldiers. The Turks do not address the fact that thousands of Armenians served the Ottoman Empire loyally in the 19th and 20th centuries. Second, it is admirable that he recognizes and honors Jewish contribution to recognition of the genocide.We need coalitions to support our efforts even though many Jews today minimize the realities of the Armenian Holocaust. Lastly, he points to the shortsightedness and cowardice of our State Department notwithstanding that so many countries recognize the facts of history. This is not the only example of shortsightedness on the part of our country in foreign relations.
  2. The “erosion and falsification of Ani” does not come from Turkey. Turkey has tried to do it, and continues to attempt to do it, but no visitor to Ani has ever given any regard to it. The real erosion and falsification of Ani is now coming from the secretive foreign band of “experts” who control Ani. For example, Carsten Paludan-Müller, director of The Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research, considers that the identification of Ani as an Armenian site, or the identification of a particular structure as Armenian, is “ideological” rather than being an architectural or archaeological question, and he has stated that the goal of his project’s team (aka the “Ani Workshop”) is to get Ani “de-nationalised”. Under the “Ani Workshop”, Ani is no longer an archaeological site whose preservation and study should be guided by international protocols. Ani is now a tool to be used in ngo, EU, and US government-controlled “Turkish-Armenian dialog” exercises, where discussions about the identity of, or significance of, Ani’s monuments is dictated by the goals of the Ani Workshop’s paymasters.

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

Sassounian: 10 Reasons Why Obama Should Travel to Armenia on April 24

Armenia’s President Serge Sarkisian has invited several world leaders to Yerevan on April 24 to commemorate the Centennial of the Armenian Genocide.
The presidents of France, Russia, Poland and Belarus have already accepted Sarkisian’s invitation. The White House has yet to make a public statement on whether President Barack Obama plans to travel to Armenia on this most solemn occasion.
A century ago, Henry Morgenthau, the U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, described the systematic annihilation of 1.5 million Armenians as “The Murder of a Nation.” Raphael Lemkin, a Polish-Jewish lawyer, told CBS that he coined the term “genocide” based on the mass crimes committed against Armenians during World War and against Jews during World War II.
Here are 10 reasons why Air Force One should make an auspicious landing in Yerevan’s Zvartnots International Airport on April 24:
  1. Obama would pay tribute to hundreds of thousands of compassionate American citizens for having raised over $117 million—today’s equivalent of over $2 billion—to aid destitute Armenians in the aftermath of the genocide. Initiated by Morgenthau and supported by President Woodrow Wilson, Near East Relief helped rescue and care for 132,000 Armenian orphans. This massive charitable effort was the first international humanitarian outreach in U.S. history.
  2. By visiting Armenia on this occasion, Obama would be reaffirming the longstanding U.S. acknowledgment of the Armenian Genocide—a settled historical fact recognized as genocide by:
- the U.S. government in a document submitted to the World Court in 1951;
- the House of Representatives in 1975 and 1984;
- President Ronald Reagan in a Presidential Proclamation issued on April 22, 1981;
- 43 out of 50 U.S. states;
- two dozen countries, including France, Italy, Russia, Canada, Holland, Vatican, Switzerland, Sweden, Argentina, Lebanon, Greece, Cyprus, Poland, and Venezuela;
- several international organizations, including the UN Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities; the European Parliament; and the International Association of Genocide Scholars.
  1. The Centennial could well be Obama’s last opportunity to regain the trust of the Armenian-American community by honoring his solemn pledge as Senator and presidential candidate to acknowledge the Armenian Genocide.
  2. Obama could lay the foundation for improved Armenian-Turkish relations based on truth and justice, in line with a pending resolution in the House of Representatives, and his previous April 24 statements, declaring that “a full, frank, and just acknowledgement of the facts is in all of our interests.” Obama’s visit would also encourage Turkish human rights activists to continue their arduous task of assisting the government of Turkey to reckon with the darkest pages of its past.
  3. The U.S. president could take advantage of this visit to urge Turkey to lift the blockade of Armenia, while taking a glimpse at the biblical Mount Ararat just across the closed border.
  4. In response to mounting attacks by Azerbaijan on Nagorno-Karabagh (Artsakh), Obama could stress Washington’s strong support for a peaceful settlement of this thorny conflict.
  5. Obama’s visit would help balance Armenia’s relations with the West, particularly after its membership in the Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union, and in view of Putin’s planned trip to Yerevan on April 24. Armenia has enjoyed close relations with Western Europe and the United States, and has participated in international peacekeeping forces in Afghanistan, Iraq, Kosovo, and Lebanon. More recently, the appointment of former Prime Minister Tigran Sargsyan as Armenia’s Ambassador to Washington underscores the importance Yerevan attaches to its relations with the United States.
  6. Since Obama, due to the Ukraine crisis, is not planning to travel to Moscow to take part in the World War II Victory Day celebrations on May 9, he would have the opportunity to meet with President Vladimir Putin in Yerevan, in a less conspicuous atmosphere.
  7. Obama’s visit to Armenia would be a significant gesture of goodwill toward the Armenian-American community. Last week, 16 major Armenian-American organizations sent a joint letter to the president urging him to participate in the Armenian Genocide Centennial events in Armenia.
  8. Obama would be making a historic first U.S. presidential trip to Armenia, preceded by several high-ranking American officials: Secretary of State James Baker III in 1992; Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld in 2001; and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in 2010 and 2012, when she laid a wreath at the Armenian Genocide Memorial in Yerevan, as all U.S. Ambassadors have done on every April 24, since the country’s independence in 1991.

Armenia Recognizes Assyrian and Greek Genocides

YEREVAN (A.W.)—On March 24, Armenia’s National Assembly passed a resolution recognizing the Assyrian and Greek Genocides committed by the Ottoman Empire of 1915-23. The Republican Party-sponsored bill, entitled “On the Genocide of the Greeks and Assyrians Perpetrated by Ottoman Turkey between 1915 and 1923,” passed unanimously, with 117 votes in favor.
The bill was authored by the deputy speaker of the National Assembly, Eduard Sharmazanov; the leader of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) parliamentary faction Armen Rustamyan; as well as Parliament members Hovhannes Sahakyan, Edmon Marukyan, Arpine Hovhannisyan, Tevan Poghosyan, Gurgen Arsenyan, Heghine Bisharyan, Alexander Arzumanyan, Vahram Baghdasaryan, Hermine Naghdalyan, Margarit Yesayan, and Lyudmila Sargsyan.



The Assyrian Genocide Monument in Yerevan
The Assyrian Genocide Monument in Yerevan

Speaking to reporters on March 23, Sharmazanov explained that by condemning the Assyrian and Greek Genocides, Armenia was standing in solidarity with the two nations. “By submitting the draft as a declaration on condemnation, we want to show society and our Greek and and Assyrian brothers and sisters and the international community that the National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia and all the political forces attach importance to [the] condemnation of the genocide perpetrated against the Greeks and Assyrians,” said Sharmazanov.

 
Sabri Atman, the director of the Assyrian Genocide Research Center, commended the National Assembly of Armenia in a statement published by the Assyrian International News Agency. “We salute the Republic of Armenia for its decision to recognize the Assyrian and Greek Genocide. This encourages us and gives us strength to be recognized internationally,” said Atman.
In a 2014 interview with the Armenian Weekly, Atman stressed the importance of recognition and criticized the Armenian government for not taking a strong stance on the issue. “Denial is a form of continuation of the genocide. It is to be killed twice. Failure to recognize the genocide has led to even more genocides against Assyrians in their homeland. We Assyrians also don’t understand the fact that the Republic of Armenia has not recognized the Assyrian Genocide yet,” Atman said in the interview.
The resolution comes a little over a month after the government of Armenia approved a motion declaring Dec. 9 as a “Day of Remembrance of Victims of All Genocides.” The resolution, which passed on Feb. 12, was introduced “to remedy historical injustices, protect human rights, and struggle against Turkey’s genocide denial policy,” according to Heritage Party member and motion co-author Zaruhi Postanjyan.
From 1915-23, an estimated 300,000 Assyrians and 500,000 Greeks were systematically killed by the Ottoman-Turkish government.

Monday, March 23, 2015

Historic Ecumenical Service to Be Held May 7 at Washington National Cathedral

“I am a proud person. I am the grandchild of a saint,” said Archbishop Oshagan Choloyan, Prelate of the Eastern Prelacy, in a conversation at the Prelacy headquarters. “After April 23, I will pray to them, not for them.”
Prelate Oshagan Choloyan
Prelate Oshagan Choloyan
He was referring to the anointing of the martyrs of the Armenian Genocide as saints on April 23 in Etchmiadzin, Armenia, by the Catholicos of All Armenians, Karekin II, and the Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia, Aram I. Both Catholicoi will then travel to Washington, D.C. and preside at the historic Ecumenical Service at the National Cathedral on May 7, at 7 p.m. Also expected to attend will be the President of the Republic of Armenia Serge Sarkisian.
Archbishop Choloyan’s grandfather, Rev. Fr. Arshavir Choloyan, was nailed to the door of the St. Sarkis Armenian church in Baghin, Palu, during the genocide. “The martyrs of the genocide died for their faith,” he related with great emotion. “We lost our brave people and our ancestral land, which is not only a geographic entity, but the place where all our vision is established.”
Remembrance is not enough, he stated. We have to have a cause to pursue. “As Armenians, and children of survivors, we must take care of Armenia, and nurture our youth with this cause,” he declared with emphasis.
“It is significant that we are commemorating our genocide together in Washington, D. C., the capital of the United States, the most important place in the world,” Archbishop Choloyan noted. “We are going there as united Armenians to raise awareness among religious and political leaders. Many know what happened to the Armenians. Some are courageous and stand with us.”

A world-famous shrine
The world famous National Cathedral in Washington, closely modeled on the English Gothic style, is the sixth largest cathedral in the world, and the second largest in the United States. This famed Episcopal edifice was erected under a U.S. Congress charter on Jan. 6, 1893, with construction commencing in 1907. The foundation stone was laid in the presence of President Theodore Roosevelt; the cathedral was finally completed in 1990. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and ranked third on the “List of America’s Favorite Architecture” by the American Institute of Architects.
The Washington National Cathedral
The Washington National Cathedral
The National Cathedral has been a religious landmark designated by the U.S. Congress as the “National House of Prayer,” and the structure has hosted both religious and secular major events, including state funerals for Presidents Dwight Eisenhower (1969), Ronald Reagan (2004), and Gerald Ford (2007). Memorial services have been held there for Presidents Warren G. Harding, William Howard Taft, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, Richard Nixon, and for First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and South African President Nelson Mandela, as well as for the casualties of the Vietnam War and the victims of the September 11, 2001 attacks.
President Woodrow Wilson, who was so instrumental in politically fighting for the survivors of the Armenian Genocide, is the only American president buried in the National Cathedral, and joins the ashes of such luminaries as author and advocate for the blind Helen Keller, and Philip Frohman, cathedral architect.

Commemoration and celebration
“We will commemorate the genocide and also celebrate our survival, and our important contributions to society as a large,” related Eastern Prelacy Vicar General Bishop Anoushavan Tanielian, a member of the Ecumenical Service Planning Committee.
“The service will entail traditional sharagans [church hymns], as well as Armenian prayers dedicated to our sainted martyrs authored and composed by the late Archbishop Zareh Aznavorian, who was a member of the Holy See of Cilicia,” he related.
“We are expecting a large number of ecumenical guests from different churches, ensuring their participation in the service,” he said. Also invited to attend are dignitaries of the diplomatic world and members of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the U.S. government.
Currently, due to high demand, there is a waiting list for seats at the National Cathedral. To join the waiting list, e-mail info@armeniangenocidecentennial.org, sending the name and address of each person wishing to attend. Because of high security at the National Cathedral, entrance will be by ticket only, accompanied by presentation of photo ID. Tickets will not be available at the door.

What’s the Point?-- activism will lead to full restitution of Armenian rights.

 BY GAREN YEGPARIAN

In just over a month, it will crescendo. It has already begun. Weeks and weeks worth of commemorations, conferences, demonstrations, marches, memorials, museum and monument dedications, pilgrimages, rides, etc. will culminate in… what? Actually, they will even continue beyond April 24, 2015.
But what’s really the point of all this? A good feeling of having done right by our soon-to-be-formally-sainted martyrs? Working on getting Turkey to recognize the Genocide, but at a more fevered pitch? Informing the rest of the world of our fate? Celebrating our survival? Putting it all behind us with one big, blow-out week/month/year of activity? No, no, no, no, no, and no to any other such pathetic, ultimately insubstantial motive.

It’s all about making things right. It means, as succinctly put by the name of the recently completed conference in New York, “Responsibility 2015,” responsibility to make Armenians whole by returning lands, property, wealth, and dignity. It means reconnection with our stolen homes and orchards, shops and factories. It means the wealthy of Turkey must be compelled to disgorge the massive ill-gotten gains of their murderous grandparents. It means us walking and living in safety wherever our original homes were, whenever we choose to go. It’s not just about recognition. In fact, recognition is a small part of the picture. It’s everything else. After all, are not those lands and properties ours REGARDLESS OF GENOCIDE?
It’s time to come out of our fearful shells, for all Armenians to get with the program and not just plead for recognition. We deserve and have earned FAR more than just that.

And there’s another coming out, that of the crypto-Armenians who, through incredible perseverance, have endured for a century under different guises – as Moslems, Kurds, Alevis, and amazingly, in this age of ISIS-like nut-jobs, even as Christians. These compatriots already have associations in Sasoon, Moosh, Dersim, and Diarbekir. It’s time for Diasporan compatriotic unions to reconnect with those of us who remained on ground zero – Western Armenia. And, in some places it is even more overt than that. On the Mediterranean coast, on Musa Dagh, the village of Vakef has persisted. On the Black Sea’s shores, we have the Hamshentzees.

All this is necessary for us to elementally, fundamentally, viscerally, reconnect with our stolen… everything. In this context, the rapidly increasing number of Mt. Ararat climbs is very important, as are trips such as those organized by Armen Aroyan to Turkish occupied Armenian lands. We have to resolve, among ourselves, the dilemma of not supporting the Turkish economy with our tourism dollars vs. remaining distant from our lands.



And there is progress, especially now, in Turkey. The Dersim Armenian and Alevi Union plans to commemorate the Genocide in the gorge in Kharpert where Armenians were thrown in. A human rights group has set out to document the sites of Armenian (and others’) mass graves. In Sasoon, a soft echo of an ancient Armenian pilgrimage to Maroota Mountain can be heard. Traditionally held on the last Thursday of July, it is scheduled this year for July 31. Locals expect other Sasoontzees to return home and join this re-birthing event. Stanford University is sponsoring three students to go to Constantinople for Genocide commemoration activities. And in this same city, where 100 years ago, our community’s leaders were rounded up in the dead of night to be butchered, a conference titled “The Armenian Genocide: Concepts and Comparative Perspectives” is being organized.

Yet, as always and unsurprisingly, we have the “traditional” Turkish policies on display as well. And, it is not only the higher level stuff – the fiasco/farce of scheduling the Gallipoli centennial remembrance on April 24th or Turkish government “academic” hacks boasting that they will deflect Armenians Genocide-related efforts – which offends any human’s sensibilities. Smaller scale, yet perhaps more brutal episodes, also abound. In the village of Ksert (Kurdish name), an Armenian cemetery adjoining a ruined church was dug up and bones strewn about, all to build a new road. I suppose it would have been “impossible” to redirect the road by a few dozen yard/meters… Then there is the hue-and-cry over the Armenian roots of Alevis and Kurds, and now Arabs and Assyrians, too! But that’s not all. The argument seems to be since these groups have (partially) Armenian roots, therefore there is no Alevi or Kurdish issue in Turkey. It’s all about the Armenian issue! Maybe we should be thanking those Turks making such ridiculous assertions for doing some of our public relations work for us.

Keep on punching. We are on a journey of a million steps, and have taken very few of them. Constant engagement, effort, and activism will lead to full restitution of Armenian rights.

Thursday, March 19, 2015

Eric Bogosian's New Book - Operation Nemesis: The Assassination Plot that Avenged the Armenian Genocide

A masterful account of the conspiracy of assassins that hunted down the perpetrators of a genocide 

In 1921, a small group of self-appointed patriots set out to avenge the deaths of almost one million victims of the Armenian Genocide. They named their operation Nemesis after the Greek goddess of retribution. Over several years, the men tracked down and assassinated former Turkish leaders. The story of this secret operation has never been fully told until now.

Eric Bogosian goes beyond simply telling the story of this cadre of Armenian assassins to set the killings in context by providing a summation of the Ottoman and Armenian history as well as the history of the genocide itself. Casting fresh light on one of the great crimes of the twentieth century and one of history's most remarkable acts of political retribution, and drawing upon years of new research across multiple continents, NEMESIS is both a riveting read and a profound examination of evil, revenge, and the costs of violence.
The book will be made available on April 21st, 2015. The book can be pre-ordered on Amazon by clicking here.
Review 
"Hitler asked, 'Who remembers the Armenians?' Eric Bogosian, that's who. Read his potent, action-packed account of how a little known assassination plot harkens back to a world-historical genocide and so will you. So take that, Hitler."—Sarah Vowell, author of The Wordy Shipmates and Assassination Vacation
"A dark and compelling tale of blood vengeance. In Operation Nemesis, Eric Bogosian tells the remarkable story of how a small group of powerless, post-war assassins sought revenge against the all-powerful masterminds of the Armenian genocide."—Annie Jacobsen, author of Operation Paperclip
"Absorbing and accessible, Bogosian presents this complex and multi-layered history with a master dramatist's flair. Operation Nemesis is an engaged and provocative account of an unforgettable tragedy and a cathartic attempt at finding justice."—Atom Egoyan, Academy Award-nominated writer and director of The Sweet Hereafter and Ararat
"Eric Bogosian, actor, playwright and novelist, can now add historian to his resume with this carefully researched tale of organized revenge on the perpetrators of one of the most heinous state-engineered genocides in modern history--the murderous expulsion of the Armenian people from Ataturk's newly reconstituted Turkey."—Richard Price, author of The Whites
"If you think you know all the great thriller stories of the last century, you don't. And this one is true. Operation Nemesis reads like a high-stakes suspense novel, but it tells us something essential about the world we're living in right now."—Peter Blauner, author of Slipping Into Darkness and Slow Motion Riot
"Operation Nemesis is a spell-binding book. It is written both with urgency and patience. Bogosian's chapter summarizing the "variety of peoples who crossed and recrossed" Anatolia is as good as any of the half-dozen established accounts I've read. His play-by-play story of the Armenian assassins avenging the Armenian genocide (1915-20) is as gripping as a Graham Greene novel. The whole book is a significant contribution to the history of Asia Minor and its effect on our present world."—John Casey, author of National Book Award winner Spartina
"In this resurrection of a lost story, Eric Bogosian vividly tells the story of the assassins who avenged the Ottoman mass killings of Armenians in 1915. Unfolding like a thriller, Bogosian's history brings to life long-forgotten events and the courageous people who set out in their own way to bring a kind of justice and peace to their shared past."—Ronald Grigor Suny, Professor of History and Political Science, University of Michigan, and author of They Can Live in the Desert But Nowhere Else: A History of the Armenian Genocide
About the Author

Eric Bogosian is an actor, playwright, and novelist of Armenian descent. He was a Pulitzer Prize finalist for his play Talk Radio, and is the recipient of the Berlin Film Festival's Silver Bear Award, as well as three Obie Awards and the Drama Desk. In addition to his celebrated work in the theater and onscreen, he has authored three novels. He lives in New York City with the director Jo Bonney.